Testosterone plays an important role in human physiology and comes from a group of hormones known as androgenic hormones. Testosterone exerts both androgenic and anabolic actions in our body.

Testosterone is present in both males and females, however there is generally 20 times more testosterone in men than women!

What does testosterone do?

Testosterone is typically associated with masculine effects in the body, but it has other actions. The following actions of testosterone occur in both men and women: development of pubic and auxillary hair, increased growth and bone mass, deepening of the voice, development of facial hair, loss of scalp hair, increased body hair, increasing sex drive/libido (men & women), influences mood and behavior, increased muscle mass & strength, decreased fat synthesis and deposition.

Actions of testosterone
Most testosterone is bound to a protein in the blood called sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Only the unbound (free) testosterone is able to freely enter cells and exert its effect. When testosterone binds to its receptor in the cell, DNA of the cell changes and results in different action performed by the cell (e.g. growth of muscle tissue).

Testosterone also increases muscle protein synthesis, decreases protein breakdown, and improves efficiency in which amino acids are used to synthesis new proteins. In a nutshell, testosterone helps make you more muscular, stronger and leaner through a magnitude of biochemical processes.

Growth Hormone
Growth hormone is a peptide hormone that regulates several important physiological processes such as growth and metabolism, development and regeneration. It is also involved in regulating bodily fluids, sugar and fat metabolism. Studies show that growth hormone can decrease body fat, while it increases muscle mass and bone density.

Growth hormone exerts its effects both directly and indirectly. Its direct effects occur when it acts on a specific receptor on a cell. For example, fat cells (i.e. adipocytes) have receptors that are stimulated by growth hormone to break down triglyceride.

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Indirectly, growth hormone mediates the release of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) by the liver. IGF-1 stimulates growth of various tissues and also increases bone growth. IGF-1 also plays a major role in muscle growth.

Metabolic effects of Growth Hormone
Growth hormone plays an important role in the metabolism of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Growth hormone promotes the use of lipids by promoting the breakdown of triglycerides and oxidation in cells. In various tissues, growth hormone enhances uptake of amino acids and protein synthesis, and also decreases protein oxidation.

Growth hormone is also involved in the regulation of blood glucose. It suppresses insulin’s ability to promote glucose uptake in the peripheral tissues and in increases gluconeogenesis in the liver. Gluconeogenesis is the formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (i.e. amino acids).

We can see from the above that testosterone and growth hormone are two powerful hormones that exert very beneficial effects on our bodies. It’s crucial to keep our levels of these two hormones healthy because they will help us in achieving the bodyshape we desire. Together, these two hormones are anabolic and help us get stronger, grow muscle and repair and regenerate muscle.

They also help us utilize fat for fuel. In combination, they help us achieve a lean and muscular body. The right type and amount of exercise along with optimum nutrition and knowing what to eat and when to eat certain nutrients will help us keep levels of these two hormones in check.

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